1973 Fifty-five thousand Portuguese soldiers are at war against the three Angolan liberation movements – the MPLA, the FNLA and UNITA.
Since 1973 there has been concerted opposition from SWAPO, especially from the SWAPO Youth League, to the Odendaal-type elections in Ovamboland, and this triggers an increased crackdown by the SA Police.
Nahas Angula of SWAPO establishes the Namibia Education Centre for Displaced Children in Zambia (and leads this institution until 1976).
Timothy Hadino Hishongwa opens SWAPO’s office for West Africa in Dakar/Senegal.
With the renaming of the SWA Coloured Organisation, the Federal Coloured People’s Party (FCPP) is formed under the leadership of Andrew Kloppers.
The Ovamboland Independence Party (OIP) is formed by Silas Ipumbu.
Plans to deport some 900 people from the Riemvasmaak area near the Augrabies Falls at the Oranje River in South Africa to Namibia – to areas west of Khorixas – are reported.
Namibia has 3 600 km of trunk roads, 9 248 km of main roads, 19 627 km of district roads and 25 408 km of farm roads.
SWA/Namibia Administrator BJ van der Walt initiates the installation of the first government computer in the new administration building.
The inflation rate in Namibia is 7%.
The Otjihase mine is developed by the Otjihase Mining Company.
February The Brandberg West Mine is closed.
March Chief Hendrik Witbooi of Gibeon, supported by the headmen of Berseba and Soromas, sends a telegram to the UN Secretary-General, asking him to "urgently free us from South African colonial rule".
Oscar Karuchab of the DEC urges SA to grant independence to Namibia.
01.03. SA establishes a Multi-National Advisory Council for SWA. Prime Minister Vorster appoints Billy Marais as its first Chairman. The Advisory Council, excluding SWAPO, SWANU and the National Convention, meets three times. Kapuuo rejects it because of its "ethnic" foundation. A further important event is the walkout of the Ovambanderu leader, Munjuku Nguvauva II, from the Council. Also, the Rehoboth Volksparty withdraws.
23.03. The Advisory Council meets for the first time in Windhoek behind closed doors.
April Lutheran church leaders Auala and De Vries (After leaving the ELC, De Vries joins the Federal Party (FP) in 1979. After the dissolution of the FP, De Vries joins the Liberated Democratic Party/Rehoboth Liberation Front (LDP/LF) in 1985 and ends up as a Deputy Minister of the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) in 1986.), representing some 335 000 Namibian church members, meet SA Prime Minister Vorster and the Commissioner-General of the Indigenous Peoples, Jannie de Wet. The Lutherans complain about the restricted mobility of people in the north of Namibia and the brutality of the SA Police and the South African Defence Force (SADF). They hand over a list of names of 37 persons who have stated that they have been tortured.
Shortly after these events an explosion destroys the offices and printing works of the Ovambo-Okavango Evangelical Lutheran Church at Oniipa in Ovamboland. The "police investigation" reveals nothing.
Consequently ELOC leader Leonard Auala and Thomas Kamati, supported and guided by the Anglican Bishop of Damaraland, Richard Wood, and Advocate David Soggot, spearhead court proceedings to try and end the brutal beatings of young "black" Namibians in Ovamboland by the Tribal Authority, aided and abetted by the South African Government and their security police. The SWA Division of the Supreme Court dismisses the application and applies the rule nisi. However, the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa in Bloemfontein supports the application to put a stop to the barbaric practice revealed in the case. The beatings were administered to the following persons: Thomas Kamati (31 strokes); Johannes Nangutuuala (21 strokes); Frans Nangutuuala (17 strokes); Nathanael Homateni (17 strokes); Andreas Nuukuawo (15 strokes); Nicky Alweendo (15 strokes) and to many others, including several women. The beatings were inflicted on the naked body and caused grave injuries to many victims. The judgement sets an important precedent relating to the fundamental rights of Namibian citizen.
27.04. Proclamation R104 of 1973 provides for Ovamboland to be a self-governing area in Namibia with Ongwediva as its seat of government. Ndonga, English and Afrikaans are the official languages. The Legislative Council for Ovambo makes provision for designated (35) and elected (21) members. Elections are planned for August 1973. Political opponents such as SWAPO, DEMCOP and the Ovambo-Okavango Evangelical Lutheran Church decide to boycott the elections. SWAPO activists like John Ya Otto are detained in terms of the emergency regulations. Only the Ovamboland Independence Party (OIP) is allowed to campaign freely.
30.04. SA reports to the UN (S/10832 and S/10921) that it intends to accelerate the policy of ethnic fragmentation, and goes on to totally neglect the process of nation-building in Namibia.
May SA continues to apply its "homeland" policy (Development of Self-Government for Native Nations in South West Africa Amendment Act, No. 20 of 1973), even though negotiations with the UN are still underway.
04.05. The Kavango is declared a self-governing area within Namibia in terms of Proclamation R115 of 1973. The official languages are English, Afrikaans and Kwangali. Rundu is the seat of government. A Legislative Council for Kavango is established with designated members for the five tribal areas (Gciriku, Kwangali, Mbukushu, Mbunza and Shambyu) and elected members.
29.06. A poll tax of R 4 per annum has to be paid by every male burger (citizen) of Rehoboth. This tax is paid over into the Rehoboth Community Fund.
27.07. De Wet announces that other than the South African Press Association (SAPA), the press is barred from Ovamboland.
August The Multi-National Advisory Council for SWA meets for the second time, in Johannesburg.
01./02.08. Elections take place in Ovamboland, with only about 2,5% of all potential voters going to the polls. Nearly 3 000 students and school children are on strike and demonstrate their solidarity for the election boycotts. Centres of the protest actions are learning institutions at Odibo, Oshigambo and Ongwediva. This highly successful boycott is organised by SWAPO and DEMCOP (the latter is defunct in 1976). After the elections many supporters of SWAPO and DEMCOP are arrested. Many are flogged in public, including Johannes Nangutuuala, leader of DEMCOP. SA allows these floggings, which serve as punishment for its political opponents. Also women such as Netumbo Nandi Ndaitwah are flogged. Other students participating in the protests are Martin Shali, Phillip Namholo and Pendukeni Iivula Ithana.
The Christian Centre (from 1978 Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN)) is established by the Namibian churches (except the "white" churches).
29./30.08. Elections take place in Kavango, with a 66,2% turnout at the polls.
September The Multi-National Advisory Council for SWA meets for the third time, in Cape Town.
Auala receives a reply from SA Prime Minister Vorster that his complaints are unfounded.
01.09. SWA issues the second definitive stamp series with succulents as motif (no water mark).
November Clemence Kapuuo of NUDO tries to obtain UN recognition for the National Convention. He is supported by David Hoveka Meroro of SWAPO and Gerson Hitjevi Veii of SWANU, but is unsuccessful in his effort.
Alfons Majavero is elected Chief Minister for the Kavango.
11.12. The UN Security Council breaks off all negotiations with the SA Government. The UN General Assembly acknowledges SWAPO (UNGA Resolution 3111) as the authentic representative of the Namibian people. SA registers its protest by withdrawing from the UN Trusteeship Committee.
18.12. The UN Commissioner for Namibia, Sean McBride, is nominated. The UN Council for Namibia issues travel documents and stamps.
December SWAPO’s national conference in Walvis Bay takes place under the chairmanship of David Meroro.

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Clemence Kapuuo and Dirk Mudge: 24.09.1973
Namibia State Archive

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Ovambanderu Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II: 09.02.2002
Dr. Klaus Dierks

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