|1995||The establishment of the Social
Security Commission, with which all employers have to register their companies and
employees, benefits employees in the formal sector of the economy. Mandatory contributions
are paid on a monthly basis to cover maternity leave, sick leave and death benefits.
The Namibian College for Open Learning (NAMCOL) enables students to enrol in either long distance (correspondence) courses or daily classes. Classes are held in the afternoons and evenings in 101 centres country-wide. Students write the same examinations as learners in formal schools. The enrolment figures climb significantly from 6 545 learners in 1995 to 20 155 students in 1998.
The vast majority of Namibias international trade is still with South Africa: 87 percent of Namibias imports come from South Africa, compared with just two percent from the next important country, Germany.
A formal National Agricultural Policy (NAP) is approved. The government seeks to redirect resources to previously disadvantaged farmers in the communal areas. Several programmes are to be implemented with the assistance of some development partners to achieve these police objectives. Two major programmes, the Sustainable Animal and Range Development Programme (SARDEP) and the Northern Regions Livestock Development Project (NOLIDEP) investigate the feasibility of introducing sustainable range management practices in the communal tenure areas. Consequently a "Affirmative Action Loan" Scheme was introduced in 1992. The Agricultural Bank of Namibia (Agribank) approves 40 loans to small communal farmers during the year at an average amount of N$ 5 966 per loan.
Namibia is instrumental in bringing together the fisheries establishments of Angola, South Africa and Namibia in order to explore co-operation in the dealing with the common scientific issues that relate to the shared Benguela Current ecosystem. To this effect the Benguela Environment Fisheries Interaction and Training (Benefit) Programme is created.
Telecom Namibia commissions a telecommunication satellite station in Windhoek. In the same year Namibias own cell phone company, Mobile Telecommunications Ltd. (MTC), is established.
|January||Hans Feddersen leaves the Allgemeine Zeitung. On 11.05. he establishes the English and German medium newspaper Plus in Swakopmund.|
|05.01.||The Deputy Minister for Works,
Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, orders explanations from TransNamib (Managing
Director: Francois Uys) why Namibias railway company has allowed that certain
sections of the rail track between Aus and Lüderitz become covered under sand.
Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: Near Kolmanskop: km 300 (from
Keetmanshoop: 20 km from Lüderitz)
Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: Station Grasplatz: km 296 (24 km
Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 290 (approx. 30 km from
|10.01.||President Sam Nujoma goes on a
state visit to Angola in order to mediate in the Angola conflict. Two further visits
follow on 03.02 and 14.05.
Prime Minister Hage Geingob admits after several denials the purchase of an official aeroplane for his office (a Lear Jet 31 A, now in excess of N$ 10 million). The Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication was kept in the dark over the purchase.
|01.02.||Namibias first Ombudsman
since 1992, Jariretundu Kozonguizi, dies in Windhoek.
Windhoek: Hochland Park: Old Location: Cemetery: Grave of
Jariretundu Kozonguizi: March 2003
|09.02.||The Minister for Finance, Gerd Hanekom, tables the Budget for the Financial Year 1995/96. The main objective of the 1995/96 budget is the promotion of economic growth and the creation of job opportunities while the growth rate of 5,4% in the previous year decreased to 3,5% in the current year. The budget makes provision for an expenditure of N$ 4 341 million, an increase of 18% against 1994/95 which is more than the inflation rate of 10% for the year (11% for the previous year). The revenue without external assistance of N$ 38 million, is estimated with N$ 3 829 million (also an increase in revenue of 18% against the previous year) which includes N$ 1 155 million from customs and levies from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). The expected deficit of N$ 474 million is again clearly higher than the deficit for the last year of N$ 407 million (which is now estimated with N$ 499 million). It again will be covered on the domestic capital market. The capital budget is estimated with N$ 680 million (15,7% of the total expenditure).|
|10.02.||The Deputy Minister for Works,
Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, commissions, together with the German
Ambassador in Namibia, Hanns Schumacher, the first radar installation for the surveillance
of the Namibian air space at the International Airport Windhoek.
The European Ambassador to Namibia, Roger Leenders, announces a grant of N$ 92 million to finance a 100 km long section of the Trans Caprivi Highway from a point 100 km east of Divundu at the Okavango River to Kongola at the Kwando River. This grant was negotiated in Brussels in several protracted, difficult negotiations by Klaus Dierks.
|15.02.||Nujoma meets Botswana President Ketumile Masire. In spite of the mediation of Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe, the boundary around the Kasikili Island remains a point of conflict between Namibia and Botswana. It is decided to refer the case to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) at the Hague. In spite of this border conflict the relations between the two countries remain good. The construction of the Trans Kalahari Highway on both sides is in full swing. The Minister for Mines and Energy, Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, inaugurates the first power transmission between the two countries (21.07.). Prime Minister Hage Gottfried Geingob visits Botswana from 24.07. to 28.07. A Water Agreement between Namibia, Angola and Botswana on the water of the Okavango River is signed during the second meeting of the Okavango River Basin Commission at Gaborone (01.08.).|
|20.02.||The members of the National Assembly approve an increase of their salaries of 20%. This results in a public outcry.|
|20./22.02.||The Prime Minister of Sweden, Ingvar, Carlsson, visits Namibia.|
|24./25.02.||The Austrian Minister of Transport, Viktor Klima (later Austrian Minister of Finance and Chancellor of the Republic of Austria), is received by the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks. A Memorandum of Understanding is signed in order to improve Namibias railway and road systems, providing employment opportunities and develop small scale industries in the transport sector. The visit ends with a note of embarrassment. During Klimas visit, the Austrian Ambassador, Pallasch, urges Dierks to arrange an appointment for Viktor Klima with President Nujoma. Due to the fact that this is not Dierks business, he is reluctant to do so. But, the Austrian Ambassador insists on such an appointment, due to a simultaneous visit by the Austrian right-wing opposition leader, Jörg Haider, who is about to go on a hunting trip with President Nujoma (25./26.02). In order to spare embarrassment to Namibia, Dierks manages to arrange with assistance of Nujomas personal secretary, Angolo Ndeutalah, an appointment with the President on 25.02. After Haiders arrival in Vienna he gives a press conference where he insults the Namibian people and government. This leads to a serious embarrassment for President Nujoma and curtails Dierks political career.|
|01.03.||President Nujoma visits Zambia. There he discusses with President Frederick Chiluba a joint venture to build a copper smelter.|
|09.03.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, announces that Germany gives a grant of N$ 2 million for a planning study to develop the Port of Walvis Bay into a major transport player along the African west coast and the end point of the Walvis Bay Corridor to South Africa as a more efficient alternative to the South African ports. Simultaneously he also makes known that he already had negotiations with the European Investment Bank (EIB) in Luxembourg to upgrade and expand the Port of Lüderitz.|
|21.03.||Re-elected President Sam Nujoma
(with 76,3% of the votes) announces his Second Cabinet for the second freely-elected
Government of the Republic of Namibia. Hage Gottfried Geingob again becomes Prime
Minister. Hendrik Witbooi is appointed in the newly established position of a Deputy Prime
Minister. The following ministries are remaining or are newly created (Minister, Deputy
Minister, Permanent Secretary): Agriculture, Water and Rural Development (Nangolo Mbumba,
Stan Webster, Isaac Kaulinge); Defence (Phillemon Malima, Erikki Nghimtina, Erastus
Negonga); Basic Education and Culture (John Mutorwa, Clara Bohitile, Loini N Katoma);
Finance (Helmut Kangulohi Angula, Barmenas R Kukuri, Godfrey Gaoseb); Foreign Affairs
(Theo-Ben Gurirab, Netumbo Nandi Ndaitwah, Andreas PGuibeb); Health and Social Services (Nicky Iyambo, Deputy
Minister: vacant, Solomon Amadhila); Home Affairs (President Sam Nujoma, Jerry Ekandjo,
Niilo Taapopi); Information and Broadcasting (Ben Amathila, Daniel Tjongarero, Nguno
Wakolele); Justice (Ernest Ngarikutuke Tjiriange, Deputy Minister: vacant, Albert Kawana);
Labour and Human Resources Development (Moses Makue 5Garoëb, John Mueneni Shaetonhodi, Tuli Hiveluah); Land,
Resettlement and Rehabilitation (Richard Kapelwa-Kabajani, Timothy Hadino Hishongwa,
Joseph Iita); Regional and Local Government and Housing (Libertine Amathila, Ben Ulenga,
Nghidimondjila Shoombe); Mines and Energy (Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, Jesaya Nyamu, Mr.
Shimutuikeni); Trade and Industry (Hidipo Hamutenya, Wilfried Emvula, Hanno Rumpf);
Environment and Tourism (Gerd Hanekom, Nangolo Ithete, Uitala Hiveluah);
Works, Transport and Communication (Oskar Valentin Plichta, Klaus Dierks, Peingeondjabi
Shipoh); Fisheries and Marine Resources (Lucas Hifikepunye Pohamba, Abraham Iyambo, Jan
Jürgens); Youth and Sport (Pendukeni Iivula Ithana, Martin Kapewasha, Calle Schlettwein).
Two completely new ministries are created: Tertiary Education and Vocational Training
(Nahas Angula, Buddy Wentworth, Vitalis Ankama) and Prisons and Correctional Services
(Marco Hausiku, Michaela Hübschle, Frans Kapofi). Further members of the second Cabinet
are the Secretary-General of SWAPO (Moses Makue 5Garoëb); the Minister of State for Security (Peter Tshirumbu Tsheehama); the
Attorney-General (Vekuui Rukoro (NNF))(the former Attorney-General, Hartmut Ruppel, does
not accept the position of Deputy Minister for Justice and retires into private life); the
Auditor-General (Fanuel Tjingaete) and the Director-General of the National Planning
Commission (Sarah Kuugongelwa, Zedekia Ngavirue goes as Ambassador to Brussels). The
Permanent Secretary in the Office of the President is Petrus Damaseb. The Secretary of
Cabinet is Eddie S Amkongo. While again many of the government positions have been
allocated to members of the Oshivambo speaking community, other Namibian communities are
also represented. Again the "white", and especially the German speaking group is
clearly over-represented. The second Cabinet reconfirms President Nujoma as the single
most powerful figure in Namibian politics: Nujoma controls the Namibian Defence Force
(NDF) as its Commander-in-Chief. He also holds the reigns of the National Security
Intelligence Agency (NSIA) and is the care taking Minister for Home Affairs. Further presidential control is also evident in the appointment of Iyambo Indongo
as Inspector of Hospitals (later he is appointed as Deputy Minister for Health and Social
At the occasion of Namibias Independence Day visit the presidents of Angola, Botswana and Zimbabwe Windhoek.
|08.04.||Frustrated demobilised jobless Ex-PLAN soldiers march to the Office of the President and demonstrate for jobs. This demonstration is followed by a further protest action at State House on 08.05.|
|13.04.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, announces that the commercial pilot training college for Keetmanshoop is still on the cards. But the funding depends on the schools economic feasibility, which in turn hinges on South Africas participation in the proposed pilot training programme. Therefore, the newly appointed Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Oskar Valentin Plichta, requests an urgent meeting with the South African Transport Minister, Mac Maharaj, to discuss this. The Training College would require 80 students (40 from South Africa) per annum to be viable.|
|18.04.||Klaus Dierks declares that he looking for finance to fund a new highway from Rundu in the east to Onuno via Eenhana in the Ohangwena Region in order to link the Kavango with the former Ovamboland. This road would serve as the western extension of the Trans Caprivi Highway. Furthermore negotiations between the German Government and Dierks take place on the funding of a Zambezi Bridge between Namibia (Katima Mulilo) and Zambia (Sesheke) and the construction of the last section of the Trans Caprivi Highway between Wenela at the Zambia border and Ngoma at the Botswana border with the upgrading of an existing bridge over the Chobe River.|
|May||The findings of the Committee of Inquiry on the Misuse of Drought Relief Subventions (Brits Commission) are not implemented. Officials who used these subventions to drill boreholes on their private farms (inter alia Minister of Justice, Ernest Ngarikutuke Tjiriange and Deputy Minister of Home Affairs, Nangolo Ithete), are exonerated.|
|02./04.05.||The President of Finland, Martti Ahtisaari, visits Namibia.|
|04.05.||Growing critic, even in the ruling party SWAPO, to implement changes to improve the life conditions of many still impoverished, formerly disadvantaged Namibians leads to the establishment of a new party, SWAPO for Justice. However, this party cannot mobilise any support within the population.|
|14.05.||President Sam Nujoma goes on a state visit to Nigeria. His contacts with the Nigerian President Sani Abacha meet increasing critic inside and outside the country. Even the government owned and pro-SWAPO newspaper New Era expresses its disgust.|
|18.05.||A plan by the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, to completely overhaul Namibias transport and road maintenance system is welcomed by the Windhoek Chamber of Commerce. Road users have to pay what they consume and therefore an equitable, fair, cost-reflective and transparent road user charging system has to be put in place. A system of "pay as you use" and new weight and distance charges for heavy vehicles are envisaged. Road transportation will be completely privatised by the year 2000.|
|03.06.||Hannes Smith from the newspaper Windhoek Observer is to appear in the Windhoek High Court from 05.12. to 07.12.1995 (together with Nic Kruger, a former director of the newspaper and Elizabeth Haase, who placed the advert) on a charge of contravening the Racial Discrimination Prohibition Act (Act No 26 of 1991). The charge arises from the publication of an advertisement in the Windhoek Observer (17.08.1994) in which the seventh anniversary of Rudolf Hess death on 17.08.1987, deputy of Adolf Hitler, at the premises of the Berlin-Spandau prison where he was detained in 1946 following a life-long sentence imposed by the Nuremberg Trial, was glorified. The state witnesses against Smith and the instigators of the advertisement are Harold Pupkewitz, André du Pisani, Gerhard Tötemeyer, Hans Feddersen, Henning Melber and Klaus Dierks.|
|08.06.||The Namibia-Zambia Joint Permanent Commission meets in Windhoek. Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, and his counterpart, Gilbert Mululu, sign a Cross Border Road Transport Agreement between the two countries.|
|15./17.06.||The President of Zambia, Frederick Chiluba, visits Namibia.|
|07.07.||Public pressure forces the Government to publish the findings of the Committee of Inquiry on the Misuse of Drought Relief Subventions (Brits Commission).|
|10.07.||Between Zimbabwe and Namibia a Joint Commission of Cooperation is established.|
|24.07.||The Government makes a Job Creation Programme for Ex-PLAN fighters known. The establishment of a Cabinet Assistance Fond for these demobilised soldiers is also announced.|
|28.07.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, announces the establishment of a Task Force for the Restructuring of TransNamib Limited, Namibias state owned transport company. A three-man task force is to be appointed to conduct a "thorough investigation" into TransNamib affairs as well as conduct a comprehensive restructuring analysis of the corporation. The task force consists of the Chairperson, Petrus Damaseb, Gabor Bruszt and Trevor Ferrel. The team has to redefine the relationship between TransNamib and its owner, the State. It will also has to analyse the financial performance of the State Owned Enterprise, especially regarding the erosion of company assets and loss of shareholder value since Independence. The task force will also has to investigate possible ways TransNamib could be brought in line with official transport policy and look at the human resources development including Affirmative Action.|
|27./29.07.||The King of Swaziland, Mswati III, visits Namibia.|
|August||The Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU) announces that, as in 1994 and in spite of favourable political and economic parameters and the prevailing peace and stability, foreign investments are generally still lacking, with the exception of single projects in the tourism (with growth rates of ten percent) and diamond and fossil gas sectors. NEPRU forecasts stability in the mining sector with some reductions in profits and in the mining deposits and with increasing production costs. This NEPRU prognosis is later proven to be too pessimistic. The agricultural sector is negatively influenced by decreased prices for cattle and the still prevailing consequences of the drought of 1992. The fishery sector is negatively influenced by unfavourable climatic influences. The still too high proportion of civil servant salaries for more than 65 000 officials (a rise of more than 20 000 since independence) in relation to the state revenue gives cause to concern. Also 1995 doesnt alleviate the inherited social imbalance between "black" and "white" communities. After Brazil and South Africa, Namibia has the highest imbalance in income between different groups in the world.|
|27./30.08.||The Minister for Defence, Philemon Malima, concludes an agreement for the training of Namibian military personnel in Zimbabwe.|
|06.09.||Both the Minister and Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication refute public statements by TransNamib (Air Namibia) General Manager Keith Petch to buy a new aircraft for the ailing airline without open, transparent tender. Dierks maintains that any major purchase by the parastatal should be done by open tender, "especially in a case where TransNamib management is always trying to manipulate the Board of Directors". Furthermore he is of the opinion that such a purchase should be put on hold until the investigations of the independent Task Force into TransNamib are concluded.|
|08.09.||As approved by the summit of heads of state of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Southern Africa Regional Air Transport Authority (SARATA) is created.|
|14./15.09.||The German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, confirms during a state visit to Namibia the close relations between the two countries. Ovaherero Chief Kuaima Riruako organises a protest demonstration in favour of compensations for the Ovaherero for the sufferings they experienced during the German-Namibian War from 1903 to 1909. This presentation again puts the bitter past into the conscience of the present time. The Ovaherero want to meet Kohl, but Kohl refuses to see them and instead visits Swakopmund.|
|16.09.||President Sam Nujoma appoints the Deputy Minister for Home Affairs, Jerry Ekandjo, as Minister. Jeremiah Nambinga becomes the Deputy Minister.|
|26.09.||The Traditional Authorities Act, No. 17 of 1995 becomes law.|
|03.10.||Renewed demonstrations of Ex-PLAN soldiers take place at the Office of the Prime Minister. The Deputy Minister for Land, Resettlement and Rehabilitation, Timothy Hadino Hishongwa, is taken hostage by the former SWAPO fighters for several hours. To control the escalating situation Cabinets approves a resolution that the Ministry for Finance has to instruct all ministries to cut their budgets by one percent in order to create more job opportunities for the demobilised soldiers. The Namibian Defence Forces and the Namibian Police have to incorporate 2 000 of these people into their ranks.|
|10.10.||In consequence of the findings of the independent Task Force for the Restructuring of TransNamib Limited, the Government decides to dismiss the entire Board of Directors of TransNamib under the chairmanship of Johann-Albrecht Brückner. However, some directors of the old board are reappointed to the new board: Vivienne Graig-McLaren, Susan Harris, Willy Klein and the Chief Executive Officer, Francois Uys. Willy Klein becomes the new chair person of the Board of Directors of TransNamib Limited. Further directors are Leake Hangala (Chief Executive Officer of the Namibia Power Corporation (NamPower)), B. Ekloff (Chief Executive Officer of Telecom Namibia), Issie Namaseb, JP Karuaihe und JN Nghifindaka.|
|20.10.||The Minister (Oskar Valentin Plichta) and Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication (Klaus Dierks) urge the new Board of TransNamib to concentrate on the core business, the sustainable development of the Namibian railways and the upgrading of the rail track between Aus and Lüderitz.|
|26.10./03.11.||President Nujoma attends the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Columbia. After this he visits Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil. There he negotiates assistance in the establishment of a Namibian navy force.|
|03.11.||The Minister for Finance, Gerd Hanekom, tables an Additional Budget which makes provision for an additional expenditure of N$ 568,2 million. This represents 13% of the original Budget for 1995/96 (7% in the previous year).|
|04.11.||Zimbabwe President, Robert Mugabe, visits Namibia.|
|21.11.||The Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Oskar Valentin Plichta, confirms that the system of road user charges will be introduced next year. This new system would mainly rely on fuel levies to raise revenue for the upgrading and maintenance of Namibias excellent road network. "Pricing the use of roads to reflect costs more correctly will enable the railways to compete against road transport on a more level playing field".|
|22.11.||In order to mediate in the Angola civil war, Namibia decides to send 200 troops to this war torn country. This happens in terms of the United Nations Angolan Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) and the Border Security Agreement of 1990.|
|23.11.||The Wages and Salary Commission (WASCOM)(established beginning of 1995) recommends a salary increase for political office bearers up to 100%. This is followed by an public outcry. The Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN) declares on 12.12. this increase as "obscene".|
|05.12.||Hannes Smith from the newspaper Windhoek Observer is to appear in the Windhoek High Court (together with Nic Kruger as former director of the newspaper and Elizabeth Haase, who placed the advert) on a charge of contravening the Racial Discrimination Prohibition Act (Act No 26 of 1991). The charge arises from the publication of an advertisement in the Windhoek Observer (17.08.1994) in which the seventh anniversary of Rudolf Hess death on 17.08.1987, deputy of Adolf Hitler, at the premises of the Berlin-Spandau prison where he was detained in 1946 following a life-long sentence imposed by the Nuremberg Trial, was glorified. The state witnesses against Smith and the instigators of the advertisement are Harold Pupkewitz, André du Pisani, Gerhard Tötemeyer, Hans Feddersen, Henning Melber and Klaus Dierks. The advert, published in German, described Hess "as the last representative of a better Germany" and a "martyr for peace". It continued, "He flew to England to the real manipulators of World War II with a peace message from the Führer Adolf Hitler". The advert is described by the state witnesses as one which "spreads falsehoods and arouses hatred", "insensitive and offensive", "racial insult, racial disharmony, racial hatred and the dissemination of racial superiority". Advocate John Walters leads the prosecution. Judge Theo Frank postpones the case until August 1996 to avoid "piecemeal" litigation.|
|18.12.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, declares that the Ministry believes in preventative road maintenance. Research has revealed that preventative road maintenance is three to four times more cost efficient than rehabilitation works on paved road surfaces. The extreme Namibian sun intensity leads to the rapid oxidation of black top road layers with the resulting cracks in the road surface. During the rainy season water penetrates the basecourse and destroys the bearing capacity of the road layers. This has to be counterbalanced by preventative road maintenance. For this purpose the Ministry has budgeted N$ 12 million in the current financial year.|
|December||The Deputy Minister for Information and Broadcasting, Daniel Tjongarero, becomes the Chief Executive Officer of the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC).|