1863 James Chapman attempts to farm at the farm Anawood on the banks of the Swakop River.
John Spence starts prospecting activities for minerals in the inland. Aaron de Pass obtains, with the assistance of Captain Benjamin Sinclair, a prospecting licence from Bethany Chief David Christian Frederiks (or ||Naixab). Consequently the Pomona Mining Company starts mining for copper, silver and lead in 1864. The mining activities prove to be economically not feasible. Thereafter Chief Frederiks shows Sinclair another copper deposit which later results in the development of the Sinclair Mine. However, costs are also prohibitive and the mine has to close down.
The fifteenth King Tshikesho tshEelu from the Uukwambi area follows King Iipumbu ya Nangaku, but dies in the same year. He establishes his capital at Onambashu. He is followed by King Nuyoma (1863-1875)(capital: Iihanguti and later Onatshiku).
The Kololo King Sekeletu (185- 1863) dies at Malengalenga and is followed by his son, Mbololo (1863-1864).
During this period the Tswana sub-group of the Tawana people is oppressed by the Kololo and the Ndebele and parts of the community escape into present-day Namibia. Simultaneously some Ovaherero flee the Orlam Afrikaners and move into Bechuanaland, where a friendly relationship between Ovaherero and Kololo develops.
10.04. The Rhenish mission station Gibeon (Khaxa-tsūs) is founded. Its first missionary is Jacob Knauer (until 27.11.1867), who is followed by Johannes Olpp (1867-1879).

Namibia_Hardap_Gibeon_1.jpg (121419 bytes)Namibia_Hardap_Gibeon_2.JPG (77407 bytes)

Gibeon, founded by Rhenish Missionary Jacob Knauer in 1863: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

04.06. Christian Afrikaner writes to Andersson: "Furthermore, I must say that you wish to steal the land, even though you know that it has always belonged to us. Because you did not know how to get the land, you decided the following: ‘Let me instigate and support the Herero against the people’. So that they shall kill me and all my people. In this way you would get all the land. That is why you have strengthened these people with guns and powder."
15.06. Christian Afrikaner, supported by ||Oaseb, Piet Koper !Gamab of the Franzman Nama and the ||Hawoben leader Karl Hendrik (Ses, or !Nanib #karib #Arisemab or |Heiguxab), brother of Hendrik Henricks (!Nanib gaib #Arisemab), is defeated by Andersson’s "private army" in the battle of Otjimbingwe, which marks the beginning of the erosion of Orlam Afrikaner power. The Orlams loose   more than one third of their men. Christian Afrikaner and Piet Koper are killed. Christian's brother David Afrikaner and his uncles Jonas and Jager Afrikaner (Jr.) are also killed. Jan Jonker Afrikaner becomes Christian’s successor. Philippus Katjimune on the Ovaherero side is also killed in the battle.
Neither Maharero nor any of his associates are involved in this initial battle, and they remain largely aloof until the third encounter a year later.
The main purpose of Andersson's war is to guarantee a safe overland trading route to the Cape Colony.
Under Jan Jonker the Orlam Afrikaners lose their position of political dominance in Nama- and Damaraland.
Ovahimba Chief Vita Tom, also known as "Chief Oorlog" (Vita means war in Otjiherero (Afrikaans: war is Oorlog)), is born during the battle. He is related to Christian Wilhelm Zeraua and Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru (Omukweyuva-eanda: mother of Vita is Kaitundu, daughter of the sister of Manasse and the father is Tom Bechuana or Tom Botswana, originating from Bechuanaland). He becomes a commando leader in Kaokoland following the raids of the Swartbooi and Topnaar.
Although the Ovaherero leader Christian Wilhelm Zeraua is Maharero’s senior, he declines the leadership and Maharero becomes the supreme Ovaherero Chief. The missionaries and Ovaherero call the war against the Orlam Afrikaner a "war of liberation". Explorer, hunter and trader James Chapman is one observer who believes the Ovaherero to be exaggerating their experience. All the battles of the 1860s must be seen as part of the Rhenish Missionary Society’s devastating scheme for weakening any indigenous political power that might obstruct the forthcoming German colonial annexation.
12.07. Rhenish missionary Peter Heinrich Brincker moves to Otjimbingwe and becomes the teacher of Maharero’s children. Later he re-opens the station Otjikango (20.02.1864). He settles again in Otjimbingwe in 1866, after Groß Barmen (Otjikango), where he was serving as a missionary, is abandoned during the Ovaherero-Nama war of the 1860s.
23.12. Khaxa-tsūs is named Gibeon.
27.12. The Witbooi Nama leader Petrus Jod is born in Gibeon.
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