1870 Basters are settled under Hermanus van Wyk in Rehoboth following an agreement between Nama and Ovaherero chiefs, thereby forming a buffer zone between Nama/Orlam communities and Ovaherero. The original Rehoboth Baster families are the following: Benz, Beukes, Bok, Claasen (Klazen), Cloete, Coetsee, Diergaar(d)t, Engelbrecht, Gertze, Isaak, de Klerk, Koopman, Morkel, Mouton, Orlam, Schalkwyk, Slenger, Steenkamp, Vrey, Vries, Wimmer, Witbooi and van Wyk.
White farmers (Jan Louw, Piet le Riche and Leonard Celliers) buy land Wilhelm Christian, Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun) in the vicinity of Warmbad. A Scot named Hill, buys from Wilhelm Christian the farms Tsawasis, Holoog and Groendorn. Carl Wilhelm Walser from Switzerland buys from the Bondelswarts chief the farms Ukamas, Ariamsvlei, Nakop, Swartkop and Walsersbrunn.
During the 1870s Willem Krüger lives in the Otjozondjupa area to protect the San and Dama there. He also assists Rhenish missionary Carl Heinrich Beiderbecke.
Axel Eriksson establishes a business at Omaruru together with Anders Ohlssen.
Rhenish missionary Samuel Gertse works among the Ovaherero converts in Omaruru as their agricultural instructor.
Wilhelm Maharero marries Kambauruma Kazahendike.
Hahn estimates that 80 000 Ovaherero and Ovambanderu live in the territory.
In the Kavango Uukwangali King Sikongo dies. He is succeeded by King Mpasi (until 1880).
Theophilus Hahn, missionary Samuel Hahn’s son, discovers the first rock paintings in Namibia in the
Khoichab River. The most important point about Hahn’s discovery is that he finds an old San in that area still painting.
31.01. Wilhelm Christian, Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-Pnun) signs a treaty with the Cape authority to assist the Cape Government preserving peace and order along the Oranje River.
Jan Jonker Afrikaner tries to persuade Maharero to form an "anti-European alliance", but Maharero declines the peace offer under the influence of the Rhenish Missionary Society (Hahn).
18.05. Missionaries Philipp Diehl and Johann Jakob Irle once again establish a mission station at Maharero’s werf (village) at Okahandja – the first since Kolbe had fled from Okahandja in 1850. Diehl works at Okahandja until 1890 when Maharero dies.
22.06. Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlieb Viehe settles at Omaruru (until 1887) where he establishes a school for the children of European settlers. He is supported by Finnish missionary Antti Piirainen (as from 1872), who erects a store, and by Rhenish missionary Caspar Heinrich Niederwelland (as from 1880, he dies on 13.06.1885 at Okombahe).
08.07. The first Finnish missionaries (Martti Rautanen, Botolf Bernhard Björklund, Pietari Kurvinen, Karl Leonhard Tolonen, Erkki Juntunen and Karl August Weikkolin), together with Hahn and Green, arrive in the Ondonga area, in Omandongo, King Shikongo’s capital. They try to establish mission stations in the Ondonga, Uukwambi, Ongandjera and Uukwanyama areas. The latter three stations have to be abandoned within two years of their establishment. Martti Rautanen is physically expelled from Ongandjera. No efforts are made to establish mission stations in the Ombalantu, Uukwaluudhi, Uukolonkadhi or Eunda areas. During the Ondonga king’s reign, Ondonga villages on the Onamayongo side - such as Ondangwa, Oniipa, Onamulunga and Oshigambo - are under the control of the headman of Oniipa, Shikongo sha Nangolo. The community leaders of the area are: Frans Amweenye, Gideon Mushimba, Sakeus Angula, Vilho Auala (Father of the present-day Bishop Nangolo Leonard Auala), Barnabas Iyambo, Gideon Nuuyoma and Sakeus Emvula.
Thirteen years are to pass before the first six people can be baptised.
11.07. In Omandongo (Ondonga) the Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station. Botolf Bernhard Björklund, Karl Emanuel Jurvelin, Malmström (until 29.07.1871) and Juho Heinonen (11.07.1870-March 1878) are the first missionaries there.

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Omandongo, south of Onayena is the first Finnish Missionary Station in Ovamboland. One of the Children of Missionary Martti Rautanen is buried here
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Elim, the Finnish mission station in the Uukwambi area, is founded. The first missionaries there are Kurvinen (until 21.05.1872), Martti Rautanen and Piirainen, followed by Weikkolin. Kurvinen has to leave due to poor relations with Uukwambi King Nuyoma.
23.09. Leaders (Jan Jonker Afrikaner, Maharero, Kido Witbooi of Gibeon, David Christian Frederiks of Bethany and Jakobus Isaak of Berseba) and missionaries (Hahn, Diehl and Irle of Okahandja, Brincker of Groß Barmen, Olpp of Gibeon, seven Finns and the trader C Conrath) organise a peace conference at Okahandja. A treaty is signed in which Jan Jonker is designated "co-regent", i.e. Maharero’s subordinate. Ten years of peace follow.
The decline of Orlam Afrikaner power means that European traders, hunters and missionaries can operate without any major restrictions imposed by indigenes.
17.11. Rhenish missionary Daniel Cloete, a close associate of Hahn for 30 years, establishes and runs (until 1880) a mission station at Okombahe.

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Rhenish Missionary Church of Okombahe: Founded on 17.11.1870: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Rhenish Missionary Cemetry of Okombahe: Grave of Missionary Caspar Heinrich Niederwelland: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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