|1894||Approximately 1 200
"whites" live in the country.
Four ships call at Swakopmund (1895: five ships).
Edmund Troost brings a steam tractor into the territory in order to transport goods through the Namib Desert.
The Cape Cross station is established for seal harvesting and guano processing .
Regional offices at Windhoek (Gustav Duft) and Keetmanshoop (Golinelli) are established.
John Ludwig begins cultivating vegetable gardens and vineyards at Klein Windhoek.
The Kharaskhoma-Syndicate is transformed into the South African Territories Company Ltd.
The farmer Ferdinand Gessert buys from Chief Paul Frederiks (1893-1906), successor of Joseph Frederiks II of Bethany, the farms Inachab, Sandverhaar, Witputs and Feldschuhhorn.
|01.01.||Leutwein arrives in Swakopmund.
Theodor Leutwein is nominated as "Kaiserlicher Landeshauptmann" of the colony (By Imperial Order dated 18.04.1898 he becomes "Governor"). After Curt von Francois leaves the territory in August, he also becomes the commander of the Schutztruppe. His task is to ensure "colonialism without bloodshed". The "Leutwein system" (divide and rule, negotiation with chieftains, "patience" and tactical "leniency") is established, but collapses in 1903/04. The Rhenish Mission is an important assistant in the establishment of German colonial rule.
Leutwein establishes a decentralised administration and opens three regional offices in Windhoek (Friedrich von Lindequist, also responsible for Otjimbingwe), Otjimbingwe and Keetmanshoop (Gustav Duft and later Golinelli).
Leutwein reports that the Ovaherero have an estimated 500 000 cattle. He expresses the hope that once the population pressure becomes acute, the Ovaherero would be forced to sell their huge herds to the "white" settlers. However, this is for many years not the case and instead of this, for the first time the effects of overgrazing become apparent as the Ovaherero herds are forced into an ever-increasing small area.
|24.01.||A skirmish between the Germans and Hendrik Witbooi takes place in the Naukluft Mountains. The Germans under the command of Carl Seiler suffer a defeat.|
|February||Leutwein meets Samuel Maharero in Okahandja.|
|24.02.||Leutwein and Von Francois attack the Khauas Nama at Aais (confluence of White Nossob and Black Nossob Rivers) and Naosanabis (present-day Leonardville) on the Nossob River.|
|18.03.||Further Schutztruppe reinforcements land at Swakopmund on the vessel "Jeanette Woermann".|
|19.03.||Khauas Nama Chief Andreas Lambert (!Nanib) is executed after a court-martial trial. The reason is that he - like Hendrik Witbooi -refused to sign a protection treaty with the Germans. Eduard Lambert succeeds him.|
||A peace and protection treaty is
agreed between Eduard Lambert of the Khauas Nama and Germany.
A protection treaty is agreed between Germany and Simon Koper (!Gomxab) of the Fransman or !Khara-khoen Nama at Gochas.
Ludwig von Estorff together with Karl Wischkon joins the Schutztruppe.
|24.03.||Military stations are established at Gibeon and Hoachanas.|
||Ovaherero Chief David Kambazembi of the Waterberg attempts to reconcile Nikodemus Kavikunua and Chief Riarua with Samuel Maharero. He is not successful. Riarua in alliance with Kandji Tjetjo even raids Samuels cattle posts. Consequently Samuel, in fear of the Okahandja Ovaherero, moves to Osona.|
|19.05.||Nikodemus Kavikunua visits Windhoek to lobby for German support, but without any success, because Leutwein is away in the south and Duft has no authority to negotiate.|
|25.06.||Leutwein takes Samuel Mahareros side, stripping Riarua of all authority during negotiations at Okahandja.|
|17.07.||New Schutztruppe reinforcements together with Von Estorff land at Swakopmund on the vessel "Lulu Bohlen".|
|27.07.||A protection treaty is agreed between the Vilander Baster and Germany.|
|27.08.||Leutwein attacks the Witbooi Nama under Hendrik Witbooi in the Naukluft Mountains.|
|03.09.||The first government school in Windhoek is established, its first teacher being Helene Nitze. Before the Great Resistance War, 1904-1909, the following schools (for "white" children only) are established: Gibeon (1900), Keetmanshoop (1901), Grootfontein (1901), Swakopmund (1901) and Karibib (1903). There are hostels at all places except Swakopmund. Due to the high transport costs there is no compulsory school education.|
||After the Naukluft Battle both armies are exhausted. The Germans suffer many casualties (27% losses). Leutwein notes that strategically little had been won. The Witbooi force is inside the mountain and the Germans are outside when Witbooi offeres a conditional surrender which Leutwein immediately accepts. A protection treaty is signed 13 days later. The Witboois are allowed to possess arms and have a certain degree of autonomy. The treaty is respected for 10 years.|
|12.11.||A private treaty is agreed between the DKGSWA and Paul Frederiks of Bethany.|
|26.11.||Leutwein persuades Samuel Maharero and Zacharias Zeraua of Otjimbingwe to meet Manasse Tyiseseta at Omaruru to seek agreement between the Ovaherero leaders. Leutweins demonstration of power leads to the downfall of Manasses independent position and to the establishment of a German military garrison in Omaruru.|
|30.11.||The Dama leader Cornelius ||Goreseb (succeeded by Judas ||Goreseb much later) is installed by Leutwein as the first paramount chief of the Dama (Berg Damara) in Okombahe in order to weaken the Ovaherero position of Manasse of Omaruru. The Ovaherero leader at Okombahe, Daniel Kariko, is deposed from his position as chief. Later differences between Kariko and Manasse Tyiseseta are exploited by Leutwein and lead to the complete downfall of Kariko in 1896.|
||Leutwein concludes a treaty with Samuel Maharero for the establishment of the southern border of Hereroland, which subsequently has serious consequences for the Ovaherero and marks the start of their loss of land and cattle.|
|22.12.||Samuel Maharero requests Leutwein
to shift the southern border. A serious clash of interests between the Ovaherero and
Germans is inevitable; it is only a question of time.
Samuel Maharero confirms the land rights of the Rhenish Missionary Society in Hereroland.
|24.12.||During a visit to the Rhenish missionary station at Keetmanshoop, Hendrik Witbooi expresses the following: "There are understanding men among the Germans, who can make allowances for our character as Namas and treat us accordingly; but there are also ruthless men who only can give orders, and they frighten me. They will take their revenge on us, and will seduce our women, despising us."|
|26.12./15.01.1895||A dispute over the southern border
in the eastern sector arises between Ovambanderu leaders Kahimemua Nguvauva and Nikodemus
Kavikunua and the Germans. Nikodemus still opposes Samuel Maharero, also on the border
dispute, because the land question is an extremely sensitive issue for the Ovaherero and
Ovambanderu. The fierce and bitter border quarrel brings the dispute between Maharero and
Kavikunua to a head.
Ox-Wagon Roads Network for 1894