1909 Spanish King Alfons XIII becomes the arbitrator in the Walvis Bay border dispute.
In Ovamboland King Iita ya Nalitoke of the Uukwaluudhi area dies. His successor is the eleventh King Mwaala gwa Nashilongo who governs until 1959. He plays a major role in contributing to peace, stability and the restoration of human rights in the Uukwaluudhi area.
During this year 180 ships call at Swakopmund.
The copper mine at Tsumeb obtains its first underground mining shaft (depth: 220 m).
Further tin discoveries are made in Ameib in the Karibib area.
The Koloniale Bergbaugesellschaft builds a 30 km long railway line from Lüderitz to the south in order to transport ore by mules.
The Goerke House is built in Lüderitz and named after its first owner, Hans Goerke.

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The 1909 built "Goerke House" at Lüderitz
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

A number of companies are also engaged in the exploration of marble. In Hamburg the Afrika-Marmor-Kolonialgesellschaft is founded, followed by the Koloniale Marmorsyndikat.
Hans-Heinrich von Wolf builds the Duwisib Castle, south west of Maltahöhe.

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Duwisib Castle: built by Hans-Heinrich von Wolf 1909: south-west of Maltahöhe: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The surveyor lieutenant Hugo Jochmann discovers rock paintings in the Tsisab gorge in the Brandberg (called the Jochmann cave)(C1 and C2 periods: 4400 - 100 B.C.).

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Graffiti by the German Surveyor, Lieutenant Jochmann: from the Year 1909 in Jochmann's Shelter: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Lion), March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Snake and Giraffe), March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Beginning of January Faced with overwhelming German superiority (under the command of Major Baerecke), the Bondelswart unit under the command of Abraham Rolf crosses the Oranje River and withdraws to British-ruled territory. On crossing the border they tell a British police officer that "they would surrender to the Cape Government if they are given assurances that they would not be extradited. Otherwise they would fight to the last".
15.01. The post office Johann-Albrechtshöhe is opened.
17.01. A post office is opened at Koes.
19.01. The German Realschule (present-day Deutsche Höhere Privatschule (DHPS)) is opened.
22.01. Kurt Streitwolf reaches the easternmost part of the colony – Ngoma on the Chobe River. It is presumably Leutwein who names this area the "Caprivi Strip" (which was formerly known as "German Barotseland" or "German Zambeziland"), in honour of German Chancellor Georg Leo von Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuccoli. Streitwolf proposes that the Caprivi Strip is quite valuable and should only be exchanged for something really valuable, for instance, Walvis Bay. The major problem is the long supply line to the Caprivi Strip because there is no direct connection to German South West Africa and all goods have to be transported via Walvis Bay, Cape Town, Livingstone and Sesheke-Mwandi in present-day Zambia (until the 1940s).
27.01. The Caprivi Strip is officially incorporated into German South West Africa.
28.01. The German Chancellor establishes a Territorial Council (Landesrat)( with advisory functions only) in the colony, as well as regional councils (Bezirksverbände: 4 to 6 elected members, mostly farmers: restricted powers: roads and water supply installations and similar powers: each regional office sends one member into the Landesrat) and local councils (4 to 8 councillors in Windhuk, Klein-Windhuk, Swakopmund, Lüderitzbucht, Keetmanshoop, Karibib, Okahandja, Omaruru, Tsumeb, Usakos, Aus and Warmbad)(all councils for "whites" only). The Bezirksbeiräte of 1899 are abolished.
The Colonial Government announces that all traffic on the lower section of the state railway will be discontinued. Simultaneously government envisages buying the OMEG railway line.
February Simon Koper agrees never to enter SWA again. The guerrilla war comes to an end but Koper supporters continue fighting the Germans (commander: Lieutenant Heinrich Georg Kirchheim) until September 1912 (or August 1913).

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German War Cemetry at Gochas: The War between Germany and the Nama continued until 1912/13 (Mostly with the surviving Followers of Simon Koper and Jakob Marengo)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

07.02. Schuckmannsburg is founded by Streitwolf as the administrative capital of the Caprivi Strip. It lies at the Zambezi River, opposite Sesheke-Mwandi. Streitwolf becomes first District Governor of the Caprivi Strip.
13.02. The first newspaper in Lüderitz, Lüderitzbuchter Zeitung, is launched.
21.02. A post office is opened at Kolmannskuppe (present-day Kolmanskop).
15.02. The export of Angora goats is prohibited.
06.03. The cornerstone for the "Turnhalle" building in Windhoek (completed in 1913) is laid.
April/May The Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station in the Uukwaluudhi area.
The Roman Catholic Church establishes a mission station at Andara in the Kavango.

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Roman Catholic Mission Church at Andara, Caprivi Region, December 2002
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.05. After two years crossing southern Africa by a motor car, Paul Graetz arrives in Swakopmund (Start of the arduous journey in Dar-Es-Salaam in August 1997).
04.05. The Subiya in the Caprivi Strip elect Chikamatondo as their chief, supported by Streitwolf. The Subiya have a well established chief’s structure with the title Liswani in use for more than 200 years. During Streitwolf’s time the Subiya area is thinly populated because many Subiya have left their area out of fear for the Germans. The German extermination policy against the Ovaherero is well known in the region.
21.05. Streitwolf visits Fwe Headman Simata Mamili in Linyanti (New Linyanti) on the Chobe River. Simata has been in control of the entire Caprivi Strip including the Subya area since the Lozi official left the area some 10 years ago. He is confirmed as Chief of the Fwe community. Other Fwe communities under Chiefs Siluka and Sikosi, as well as the ethnic communities of the Yeyi, Mayuni and Totela, acknowledge the chieftainship of Simata. Up to the present the successors of Simata Mamili rule over all ethnic communities in the Caprivi Strip except for the Subiya community. Streitwolf’s dispensation works very well until the 1980s. Every community is represented in the Khuta, the administrative and juristic community centre. The office of the Ngambela is normally occupied by a non-Fwe.
29.05. The Windhoek Agricultural Show opens.
Roman Catholic missionaries (together with Father Joseph Gotthardt, later Bishop of Windhoek) visit Gciriku Chief Nyangana in the Kavango.
Middle 1909 After German-British negotiations, the Bondelswart unit under the command of Abraham Rolf who had surrendered to the British authorities in South Africa at the beginning of the year is turned over to the Germans. Of the ten Nama, six are sentenced to death (they are publicly executed in Keetmanshoop) while four are condemned to life imprisonment and ordered to be kept in chains. In addition each of the condemned is given 100 lashes with the whip. However, the four Nama who had been given life sentences manage to escape from jail in Karibib in December 1909.
June A Portuguese military expedition under the leadership of Joao de Almeida moves from Angola against the Kavango. This expedition is accompanied by Vita Tom. Some Ovaherero fugitives from Bechuanaland join Vita.
01.06. The German administration issues a mining ordinance which establishes the Diamanten-Regie-Gesellschaft to prevent overproduction and price crashes. All diamonds have to be sold through this organisation. Since then the diamond trade is completely monopolised by the State.
22.06. King Kambonde of the Ondonga area in Ovamboland dies. His successor is the eleventh King Kambonde kaNgula (1909-1912).
06.07. The railway line from Seeheim to Kalkfontein Süd (present-day Karasburg) is opened.

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Railway Bridge over Holoog River: Railway Line: Grünau-Seeheim
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

06.08. The post office at Gochaganas is closed.
04.10. A post office is opened at Prinzenbucht.
01.12. A post office is opened at Brakwater (Windhoek).
22.12. The Governor of German South West Africa, Von Schuckmann, states that it would be against German interests to accept the British solution for the south-western border of the Caprivi Strip. This would mean the loss of a long section of the Chobe River and the Mahango Drift (named after Headman Mahango) where the Mahango omuramba joins the Okavango River. This drift is the only drift in the colony that connects German South West Africa with the Caprivi Strip and Ngamiland in present-day Botswana with southern Angola. The Tawana people of Ngamiland in Bechuanaland continue to regard the area to 18° south as their territory.
End 1909 Streitwolf estimates that 5 000 Subiya people, 2 500 Fwe, 1 500 Yeyi and 300 Kxoé live in the Caprivi Strip. The missionaries from Andara estimate that 3 000 Mbukushu live under the control of Chief Diyeve.

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Ox-Wagon Road Network: German South West Africa: 1909
Source: De Kock, GL, Stellenbosch, 1973

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