1932 The Ovaherero experience forms of religious millenarian revival in the 1930s.
With the exception of some government schools for "Coloureds", no provision is made for the establishment of government schools for "blacks" until 1935 when pressure from the Permanent Mandates Commission and from some Ovaherero leaders prompts the SWA Administration to establish schools in the reserves. The only exclusion is a school for Ovaherero up to Standard VI in Windhoek which is founded during 1932.
Administrator Werth takes up the matter of Baster autonomy with the two Baster factions.
South West African Airways Ltd. stops the inland airmail service due to lack of support.
David Gideon Conradie becomes the new SWA Administrator.
In terms of the "Cape Town Agreement" the SA Government is requested to introduce German as a third official language (after Afrikaans and English). Furthermore, the SA Government is requested to enable the SWA Legislative Assembly to exercise powers on matters such as the police force, civil aviation, primary and secondary education, posts and telegraphs and the founding of SWA’s own land bank.
The National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (NSDAP)(Nazi Party) is formed in Windhoek, with branches throughout the territory. She establishes a newspaper, Die Sonnenwende. The Rhenish Missionary Society soon comes into close contact with the new party, especially through their dual position as missionaries and pastors of the German parishes. Landesprobst Andreas Wackwitz who is the leader of the German Lutheran parishes from 1933, is a member of the Nazi Party.
The lead deposits are discovered at the Namib Lead Mine.
26.01. Jariretundu Kozonguizi is born in Windhoek.
16.06. Father Helferich establishes a Roman Catholic mission station in Okatana in the Ondonga area.
July/August King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo (1907-1932) of the Uukwambi area has resisted both the Finnish mission and SWA Administration since 1922. From this time onwards the records of the mission and the administration are full of complaints about him. Complaints are lodged about his intransigence, especially regarding migrant labour that is not as forthcoming from Uukwambi as required by the colonial administration. But it also emerges from archival records and oral history that King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo is a tyrant whose autocratic and often arbitrary rule made many of his subjects flee the Uukwambi area for neighbouring districts. His alleged and real sexual misdemeanours make him unpopular. He even wants to marry one of his social or even biological daughters, Neekulu ya Shivute. Neekulu flees to the Finnish missionary at Elim. Iipumbu sends some of his soldiers to fetch her forcefully and even threatens the missionary station at Elim (Neekulu finally finds refuge with missionary Emil Liljeblad at Oshigambo in the Ondonga area). All these events lead to his disposal.
The Resident Commissioner in the north, "Cocky" Hahn, is pivotal in deposing Iipumbu. He uses military aircraft and machine guns to demoralise the Uukwambi forces at Ombwelafuma. In the mean time Iipumbu tries to obtain support from the Portuguese colonial authority at Ombandja in Angola. This support is however not forthcoming. The Portuguese inform the South Africans of Iipumbu’s activities. During Iipumbu’s absence from the Uukwambi area, Hahn uses the opportunity to attack the Uukwambi with the assistance with some Uukwanyama and Ondonga warriors under the command of Nehemia Shoovaleka. He is finally arrested at Onemedhiya and forced into exile in the Kavango after SA war planes bomb his residence. Iipumbu stays a couple of years in the Kavango and returns home to Amupolo falling sick. The Ovambo call King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo "Ndilimani", meaning "dynamite" in the Oshivambo language. The Ovambo are placed under pressure to surrender their arms. This drive continues for more than a year. The SWA Administration exploits the famine of 1929-1933 in Ovamboland and exchanges arms against food.
01.08. The copper mine at Tsumeb closes down.

Iipumbu_1932.jpg (26520 bytes)

Uukwambi King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo, 1932
Namibia Scientific Society

WB00823_.GIF (134 bytes)

[Return to Table of Contents]

forward.GIF (132 bytes)