1955 The UN General Assembly approaches the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for an opinion on whether or not a two-thirds majority is required for decisions of the Assembly relating to the examination of reports on the administration of SWA compiled by the UN Permanent Committee on SWA. The Court rules in favour of the two-third majority rule.
The South West Africa Progressive Association (SWAPA) is formed in Windhoek, its members being teachers, clerks and "intellectuals", whose purpose is to lobby for better "black" education (in 1958, 127 823 SA Pounds were allocated by the SWA Administration for 9 969 "black" school children in schools within the "Police Zone" and 36 117 SA Pounds for 18 350 children outside the "Police Zone" (mainly Ovamboland)). It encompasses both the political and economic advancement of "blacks". Uatja Kaukuetu is chairman. Tunguru Huaraka is Secretary-General.
Tsumeb mine workers go on strike.
Leonard Auala and Jason Amakutuwe from ELOK are invited to commence theology studies in Finland. The SA authorities refuse to issue passports to them.
The functions of the "Okavango Native Territory" revert, by Proclamation No. 32 of 1937, to the SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development.
Karl Friedrich Lempp from the Allgemeine Zeitung is replaced by Werner Bertelsmann.
March In response to Malan’s statement that the mandate over SWA had lapsed, a group of local Afrikaners and Germans form the Mandate Party to campaign for the maintenance of the territory’s mandatory status.
18.04. SWACTA and SWACPB direct a petition to the SWA Administration and the South African Department of Native Affairs for the creation of a new "coloured" township in Windhoek. SWACTA also requests the establishment of a Council for Coloured Affairs. The "coloured" population in Windhoek is represented by a "coloured" member on the Native Advisory Board of the Old Location.
09.07. David Witbooi, chief of the Witbooi Nama since 1928, dies. His successor is Hendrik Samuel Witbooi.

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Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for David Witbooi
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

25.08. Ovaherero leave the Rhenish Mission to join the "Oruuano Movement" (Oruuano means in Otjiherero: Communion), which demands the reallocation of land. The leader of the "Anti-Apartheid church" is one of the first Ovaherero to have been ordained by the Rhenish Mission in 1949, Reinhard Ruzo. Hosea Kutako plays an important role in the formation of the "Oruuano Church". However, the Rhenish Mission regards the Oruuano Church as a "new heathen sect" which is developed as a consequence of nationalist "confusion and false doctrine". In contrast to this attitude, missionary Werner Wienecke declares that "White missionaries that we are, we share the blame of our white brothers and sisters, who call themselves Christians".
November Preses Diehl leads a Rhenish delegation at the first All-Africa Lutheran Conference in Marangu, Tanzania, organised by the Lutheran World Federation (LWF). Diehl reports that there is "an awakening nationalism especially among the Herero, [which had] brought a certain revival of the old ancestor worshipping". From the Evangelical Lutheran Ovambo-Kavango Church (ELOK)(founded 1954 from the ex-Finnish Mission) Leonard Auala, Jason Amakutuwe and Efraim Angula participate.
16.11. The National Party of SWA is again victorious in elections for the Legislative Assembly. The Independent Economic Party (former Mandate Party) is unsuccessful.
December A Missionary Conference under the leadership of preses Diehl takes place in Okahandja to discuss the relationship between the Mission and the German Evangelical Lutheran Church (DELK) in SWA. It becomes clear that there are conflicting loyalties between German and "black" parishes. The German synod in SWA should get greater independence and thus better prospects for recruiting pastors in Germany. Despite the more "liberal" views of some of the younger missionaries, many of the Rhenish missionaries still share the apartheid ideology of the NP of SWA.
1956 The ICJ continues to deal with the SWA problem in an advisory capacity. It confirms the UN General Assembly’s right to adopt resolutions on SWA, and to grant oral hearings to petitioners (Michael Scott, Mburumba Kerina (Getzen), Jariretundu Kozonguizi, Hans Beukes, Markus Kooper, Sam Nujoma, Ismael Fortune, Jacob Kuhangua and Hosea Kutako). This gives new impetus to the political socialisation and consciousness of "black" leaders in the territory.
A new round of negotiations commences in New York between the UN and SA on the SWA issue. The UN Permanent Committee on SWA continues its work, but its efforts end in failure. From various petitions submitted to the Permanent Committee, it can be concluded that SA’s policies on SWA violate the provisions of the original "Mandate Agreement".
The Uniao das Populacoes de Angola joins the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in Angola.
The Herero Chiefs’ Council sends Mburumba Kerina as petitioner to the UN.

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Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Mburumba Kerina: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Leonard Auala, Jason Amakutuwe and Efraim Angula from ELOK are allowed to study theology in South Africa (Oskarsberg), but only for one year.
The SWA Railway Administration asks the SA Parliament to authorise the " dieselisation" of the whole SWA railway system and simultaneously to allow the broadening of the northern narrow-gauge line between Usakos and Tsumeb/ Grootfontein/ Outjo.
401 Dama from Augeigas (present-day Daan Viljoen game reserve) are resettled against their will in Otjohorongo.
The question of the |Hai-|khauan captaincy in Berseba continues as an important, though dormant issue. It comes to a head when the Goliath headman David Vries dies. Only the headman Edward Isaak Jr. remains as the leader of the Berseba community.
Intensive exploration activities lead to the discovery of substantial bodies of copper- lead ore in the Asis mining area. As a consequence, the modern Kombat mine comes into operation in 1962.
The Gorob and Hope Mines are started by the Mineral Trading Company of South West Africa but closed again one year later.
Prospecting for radioactive minerals takes place near Rössing.

February Construction of the new salt-gravel road from Swakopmund to Walvis Bay, the "Jan Loopuyt coastal road", commences.
06.05. Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma marries Kovambo Theopoldine Katjimune.
21.05. SA Prime Minister JG Strijdom confirms his country’s right to incorporate SWA into the Union of South Africa.
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