6.0  Endnotes

[1] This updated study is based on: Dierks, Klaus: Namibia's Railway System - Future Link to Africa, United Nations Council for Namibia, Seminar on the Integration of Namibia into the Regional Structures for Economic Co-operation and Development in Southern Africa: "Namibia will feed into the Southern African Development Context", A/AC.131/HAR/CRP.13 (HAR.89-018), Harare, 23-28 October 1989

[2] Dierks, Klaus: The Development of a Roads Model for Independent Namibia, Vienna, 1989. J.M. Kindinger reported in a personal letter dated 01 February 1995 to me that noose tactics towards Namibia were applied by the South African Government since 1948: "1. During 1949/50 it was decided to dismantle the Cold Storage Facilities at Walvis Bay (whereby Namibian beef could be exported to England in terms of the Commonwealth Meat Plan) .. and compelled Namibian beef producers to export beef only to South Africa by train to the Reef where cattle trucks were returned with coal to Namibia .. .The foregoing practice limited the earnings of beef farmers but benefited the SA Railways revenue and SA economy with cheaper beef. 2. Demanded complete unrealistic guarantee requirements on the construction of Railways in Namibia as evidenced by the refusal of A H du Plessis and general managers of SA Railways, D H C du Plessis and J P Hugo telling mining companies where and when they could apply for Railway extensions in an arrogant and dictatorial manner i.e. the application of Bethlehem Steel Corporation plus placing high percentage of overhead debits against Namibia Railways (in order to push up losses) to the benefit of the SAR."

[3] Walvis Bay is the only effective Namibian deep sea harbour which was annexed by Great Britain in 1879 and handed over to South Africa later. This occurred without any consent on side of the Namibians and was a priority case for a bitter dispute after the Namibian independence on 21 March 1990. The dispute was at least resolved in 1993 with the re-integration of Walvis Bay into Namibia on 28 February 1994.

[4] Although the Namibian railways are underutilised and were running with losses before 1988, the Tsumeb basic and refined ores were transported by South African road carriers by road and not by the parallel running railway lines before independence, although the roads (Klein Aub-Rehoboth-Windhoek-Tsumeb and Tsumeb-Otjiwarongo-Walvis Bay) were not designed to carry such heavy axle loads.

[5] Dierks, Klaus: Summarised Key Points on the White Paper on Transport Policy in Namibia, Windhoek, 1994 and Dierks, Klaus: Summarised Key Points on the Policy on Road User Charging in Namibia, Windhoek, 1994

[6] The South African Rand (R) currency was replaced by the Namibian Dollar (N$) on 15 September 1993 in Namibia. Preliminarily the Namibian Dollar is equal to the South African Rand.

[7] Dierks, Klaus: Schmalspureisenbahnen erschließen Afrikas letzte Wildnis - Namibias Schienenverkehr zwischen Aufbau und Rückgang, p.347-361, Windhoek, 1985

[8] United Nations Institute for Namibia: Comprehensive Study on Namibia: Chapter XI, Lusaka, 1986, p.391 and Dierks, Klaus: Comment on the Report of the Advisory Council for Transport Services in SWA/Namibia, p.3, Windhoek, 1986

[9] See footnote 7, p.361-363

[10] Information in the hand of the author

[11] Anonymus: Rhodes wanted it 60 years ago , Railway Engineering, 1959, p.32

[12] Jeske, Joachim: Verkehrsgeographische Strukturwandlungen im Südlichen Afrika: 1975-1980, Hamburg, 1981, p.107-119

[13] Schwarz, E.H.L.: The Kalahari or Thirstland Redemption, Cape Town, 1920, Map I

[14] Karlson, A.: The Kalahari Problem, reprinted from the South African Mining and Engineering Journal, Johannesburg, 1919, p.20-23

[15] Windhoek Advertiser: 25.06.1924: Railway to Rhodesia

[16] Dierks, Klaus: Schmalspureisenbahnen erschließen ..., p.362. The most recent Trans-Kalahari-Railway feasibility investigation proposes a line (1420 km) from Kgaswe in Botswana to Dolphyn Beach at the Atlantic Coast (between Swakopmund and Walvis Bay) which follows in sections the old German line from Omitara to Okahandja.

[17] Anonymous: Rhodes wanted it 60 years ago , Railway Engineering, 1959, p.32

[18] Southern Rhodesia Governor's Office: Enclosure to Dispatch No.17 from Governor of Southern Rhodesia dated 17.01.1925, to L.C.M.S. Amery, Colonial Office, London in matters "Rhodesia - Walvis Bay Enquiry Committee" dated 23.12.1924, Botswana National Archives, Archival Series "B.N.A.", S.5/6/1

[19] The "L.M.S." played a great role in Namibian history since 1805. See in this regard: Dierks, Klaus: 5Khauxa!nas-Schans Vlakte: Oldest Urban Settlement in Namibia? A Symbol for Independence, Windhoek, 1987 and Dierks, Klaus: 5Khauxa!nas - the Great Namibian Settlement, Windhoek, 1991 as well as Dierks, Klaus: Growing to Nationhood - 5Khauxa!nas, Windhoek, 1992

[20] F.H. Hawkins, Foreign Secretary: "L.M.S." to Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, Westminster, 12.11.1924, "B.N.A.", S.5/6/1

[21] Moffat, H.N., High Commissioner for Southern Rhodesia to C.T. Davis, Under Secretary, Dominions Office, London, 07.07.1924, "B.N.A.", S.5/6/1

[22] See F.H. Hawkins: footnote 20

[23] Dominions Office: Railway connection between Rhodesia Railways and South West Africa, "B.N.A.", S.5/6/1

[24] Letter exchange between Dominions Office and Delagoa Transport and Construction Co., 26.02. resp. 12.03 1926, "B.N.A.", S.5/6/2

[25] Clifford, B.E.H.: Report on the Kalahari Reconnaissance, July 1928, "B.N.A.", S.90/9, p.41

[26] Report of the Sinoia-Kafue and Beitbridge Railways Enquiry Commission, 22.02.1930, "B.N.A.", S.87/12

[27] Note No.60 of Governor's for Southern Rhodesia, C.H. Rodwell, to the High Commissioner for South Africa, Salisbury, 27.12.1929, "B.N.A.", S.87/11

[28] Telegram No.4: High Commissioner, Cape Town to Secretary of State, London, 08.01.1930, "B.N.A.", S.87/11

[29] Colonial Office to Undersecretary of State, Dominion's Office, London, 27.06.1930

[30] Werth, A.J.: Speech at the occasion of the opening of the Windhoek-Gobabis railway line, Rand Daily Mail, Johannesburg, 07.11.1930

[31] Resolutions at a Conference held in the Imperial Secretary's Office, Pretoria, 25.09 and 26.09.1930, to discuss the question of a survey for a railway between Southern Rhodesia and Walvis Bay, "B.N.A.", S.87/14, p.1

[32] Telegram No.94 of Secretary of State, London, to High Commissioner, Pretoria, 05.08.1930, "B.N.A.", S.87/14

[33] Dierks, Klaus: Schmalspureisenbahnen erschließen ..., p.361-363 and Dierks, Klaus: 5Khauxa!nas - The Great Namibian Settlement, Windhoek, 1991, p.120

[34] Memorandum of the Southern Rhodesian Minister for Mines and Public Works to the Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia, H.U. Moffat, 11.10.1930, "B.N.A.", S.88/1

[35] Jeffares was the founder of the renowned South African consulting civil engineering firm of "Jeffares and Green" to which the author of this study had a more than 20 years long professional connection. The original reports of Jeffares regarding the Trans-Kalahari-Link survey are still in the possession of this firm in Johannesburg and were repeatedly studied by the author.

[36] Southern Rhodesia: Report by J.L.S. Jeffares on Rhodesia - Walvis Bay Reconnaissance Survey, presented to the Legislative Assembly, Salisbury, 1932, "C.S.R.13-1932"

[37] See previous footnote

[38] Bulawayo Chronicle: 17.06.1932: "The Walvis Bay Line. Not likely for many years. But need will some day be very acute."

[39] South African Railways and Harbours: Memorandum from the Chief Civil Engineer to the General Manager re Rhodesia-Walvis Bay Reconnaissance Survey, Johannesburg, 11.02.1932, "B.N.A.", S.232/9

[40] Letter: J.A. Venning to C.F. Rey, Windhoek, 12.10.1932, "B.N.A.", S.232/11

[41] Great Britain: Financial and Economic Position of the Bechuana Protectorate, Report of the Commission appointed by the Secretary for Dominion Affairs, London, 1933

[42] Bulawayo Chronicle: 13.01.1933: An outlet to the West. View from the mandated area. Position of Walvis Bay.

[43] Draft Initial Scheme for Food Production in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1947, "B.N.A.", S.209/2/1

[44] Memorandum to British High Commissioner of British Bechuanaland, Mafeking, dated 29.04.1946 by the chiefs of six Botswana communities with the request to send it on to the UNO Trusteeship Committee via the British Government

[45] Address by His Excellency, the President Sir Seretse Khama opening the Southern Development Co-ordination Conference, Arusha, 03.07.1979, p.6, par.11

[46] Conference on Central African Transportation Problems, Final Act, Lisbon, 31.05.1949

[47] Minutes of an inter-territorial meeting held in the Executive Council Room, Salisbury, on 11th and 12th August, 1949, to discuss matters pertinent to the Rhodesian Railways Higher Authority, "B.N.A.", S.525/1/1

[48] Sir E. Baring to C. Byers, Pretoria, 18.08.1949, "B.N.A.", S.525/1/1

[49] Notes for the confidential information of Union delegates at the Southern Africa Transport Conference upon items that may be brought up for discussion: suggested additional port for Rhodesia on west coast, Archives: South African Railways and Harbours Reference Library

[50] Central and Southern Africa Transport Conference: Minutes of Committee No.2, Johannesburg, 6th November 1950

[51] Bechuanaland Protectorate: Minutes of the 54th session of the European Advisory Council held at Mafeking, March, 1954

[52] Memorandum: Director of Public Works, Bechuanaland Protectorate: Rhodesia-Walvis Bay Railway Line, Mafeking, 25.09.1953, "B.N.A.", S.209/2/1

[53] Anonymous: A chapter remains unwritten, Rhodesia Railways Magazine, April 1964, p.19-21

[54] Great Britain: Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate & Swaziland, Report of an Economic Survey Mission, London, 1960, p.78

[55] Young, B.A.: Bechuanaland, London, 1966, p.13

[56] Dierks, Klaus: A clash of interests is inevitable: The Namibian, Windhoek, 27.06.1986

[57] See footnote 45 (Sir Seretse Khama)

[58] Rand Daily Mail: SWA-Botswana railway plan, Johannesburg, 04.05.1979

[59] Jeske, Joachim: Verkehrsgeographische Strukturwandlungen im Südlichen Afrika: 1975-1980, Hamburg, 1981, p.120-122

[60] International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: International Development Association: Eastern Africa Regional Office: Botswana: Development strategy in a mineral-led economy, Basic economic report, Vol.I: Current economic position and prospects, 1975, p.40

[61] Nganunu, J.: Back to coal, Botswana Magazine, No.5, 1979, p.25

[62] The author of this study, in his capacity as "Chief Engineer: Structures" of the Namibian Department of Transport until 1987 issued numerous "Abnormal Mass Permits" for the conveyance of heavy oil-rig equipment from Walvis bay to Mamuno at the Namibia/Botswana border in 1987.

[63] Republic of Botswana: Annual Report of the Geological Survey Department, Gaborone, 1978, p.22

[64] Shell Coal Botswana (Pty) Ltd.: Letter: 04.10.1979

[65] Bertlin and Partners: Pre-Feasibility Study on Trans-Kalahari-Transport-Route, London, 1979

[66] Namibian high quality coal from Aranos could change the feasibility of the envisaged Epupa Hydro-Power Scheme.

[67] Sunday Times: Botswana picks Route for Coal Railway to Namibia, 05.August 1984, p.36

[68] Republic of Botswana: Ministry of Finance and Development Planning: National Development Plan 1976-1981, part I, p.15

[69] Info given to author in 1988/89: It could have been in the global interest of the USA, within the framework of "SATO", to promote such a scheme together with "RSA" and by a "'SATO'-leased Port of Walvis Bay". Which role the US owned firm of "Bechtel" played in this regard is not clear.

[70] Dierks, Klaus: Calculations for the economic feasibility of the Trans Kalahari Railway based on the cost estimate of Henderson Travers Morgan (HTM) of the UK for Namibia Consult Incorporated in 1989

[71] Calculations made by Botswana Railways (A. Ramji: General Manager) and the Namibian TransNamib Rail (G..J.J. Du Preez: General Manager)

[72] 25% of the total turn-over costs are currently (1996) used by TransNamib Rail for the rail infrastructure.

[73] South West Africa/Namibia: Department of Finance: Statistical Economic Review, Windhoek, Inf. Service, 1981/4

[74] United Nations Institute for Namibia: Comprehensive Study on Namibia: Chapter XI, Lusaka, 1986, p.393

[75] United Nations Institute for Namibia: Comprehensive Study on Namibia: Chapter XI, Lusaka, 1986, p.394

[76] Dierks, Klaus: Guidelines for the Formulation of a Maritime Transport Policy in Namibia with Special Reference to Emergency Plans regarding the Walvis Bay Issue, Windhoek, 1991, p.33

[77] Windhoek Advertiser, 11 October 1993, p.1

[78] The number of locomotives were reduced from 128 in 1989, due to over-capacities, to less than a hundred after independence by TransNamib Limited with only 85 locomotives left in 1993 and a further reduction to 75 in 1995 after another ten locomotives were sold to the Sudan for N$ 11 millions. According to the General Manager: TransNamib Rail only 51 locomotives are currently required to run the system (Tempo: 26 February 1995, p.2) This selling-off of assets without new investments in locomotives and rolling stock represents a dangerous development which has to be carefully analysed in the pending re-structuring of TransNamib Limited in 1995/96.

[79] United Nations Institute for Namibia: Comprehensive Study on Namibia: Chapter XI, Lusaka, 1986, p.394-395

[80] United Nations Institute for Namibia: Comprehensive Study on Namibia: Chapter XI, Lusaka, 1986, p.395

[81] United Nations Institute for Namibia: Comprehensive Study on Namibia: Chapter XI, Lusaka, 1986, p.395

[82] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

[83] Pereira, A.F.: Human Resource Issues and Challenges in Railway Restructuring Processes, Rabat, May 1996

[84] These data are drawn from the World Bank Data Base. See also Pereira, A.F.: Consequences for management and personnel of the restructuring of railways, in "Rail International, Brussels, 1995

[85] DE Consult: Connsulting Assistance for Restructuring of TransNamib Ltd., Final Report, Windhoek, 1996, p. v

[86] Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication: Draft White Paper on Transport Policy, Windhoek, 28 April 1992 and Dierks, Klaus: Summarised Key Points on the White Paper on Transport Policy in Namibia, Windhoek, 1994

[87] Dierks, Klaus: Summarised Key Points on the Policy on Road User Charging in Namibia, Windhoek, 1994

[88] UIC MAPS Seminar, "Restructuring , why, how", Rabat, May 1996

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