TABLE OF CONTENT

 

1.0 TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN

2.0 ROAD NETWORK IN THE STUDY AREA

2.1 ROAD CATEGORIES IN THE STUDY AREA

TABLE 1: ROAD CATEGORIES IN THE OSHIKOTO, OHANGWENA, OSHANA AND OMUSATI REGIONS

2.2 TRAFFIC

TABLE 2: TRAFFIC LEVELS FOR UNPAVED ROADS IN THE OSHIKOTO, OHANGWENA, OSHANA AND OMUSATI REGIONS

TABLE 3: TRAFFIC LEVELS FOR PAVED ROADS IN THE OSHIKOTO, OHANGWENA, OSHANA AND OMUSATI REGIONS

2.2.1 TRAFFIC COMPOSITION

2.3 RIDING QUALITY

3.0 DETERMINATION OF TRANSPORT COSTS

TABLE 4: CONVERSION FACTORS BETWEEN FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSPORT COSTS

3.1 ROAD OWNER COSTS

3.1.1 MAINTENANCE COSTS

TABLE 5: COSTS FOR MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE STUDY AREA
TABLE 6: COSTS FOR UPGRADING ACTIVITIES IN THE STUDY AREA

3.1.2 CONSTRUCTION COSTS

TABLE 7: COSTS COMPONENTS FOR A PAVED ROAD IN THE STUDY AREA

TABLE 8: ESTIMATED CONSTRUCTION COSTS FOR ROAD IN THE STUDY AREA

3.2 ROAD USER COSTS

3.2.1 VEHICLE OPERATING COSTS (VOC)

TABLE 9 VEHICLE OPERATING (ECONOMIC) COSTS FOR A PASSENGER BUS (US $)
TABLE 10 VEHICLE OPERATING COSTS FOR A PASSENGER CAR (US $)
TABLE 11 VEHICLE OPERATING COSTS FOR A MEDIUM TRUCK (US $)
TABLE 12 ECONOMIC VOC BY TYPE OF ROAD AND TERRAIN FOR SIX CATEGORIES IN NAMIBIA (N$/Vehkm)

3.2.2 TRAVEL TIME COSTS

TABLE 13 VALUE OF TIME FOR ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS (N$/h)
TABLE 14 TIME COSTS PER VEHICLE TYPE (N$/h)

3.2.3 ACCIDENT COSTS

TABLE 15 ACCIDENT UNIT COSTS (N$ PER ACCIDENT)
TABLE 16: ACCIDENT RATES AND COSTS PER TYPE OF ROAD
TABLE 17: ADJUSTMENT FACTORS RELATED TO LANE AND SHOULDER WIDTH
TABLE 18: OVERALL ROAD ACCIDENT RATE IN NAMIBIA, 1996

4.0 PRINCIPLES OF A ROAD MAINTENANCE STRATEGY

4.1 INTRODUCTION

TABLE 19: ESTIMATION OF IRI-VALUES FOR DIFFERENT PAVEMENT TYPES

4.2 UNPAVED ROADS

4.2.1 COST AND QUALITY OPTIMISED MODELS FOR UNPAVED ROADS

TABLE 20: IRI-VALUES BEFORE/AFTER BLADING AND ROUGHNESS PROGRESSION (C-VALUES) FOR DIFFERENT MATERIAL TYPES

TABLE 21: BLADING EFFICIENCY (GE) FOR DIFFERENT MATERIAL TYPES
TABLE 22 RECOMMENDED ROAD MAINTENANCE STRATEGY FOR UNPAVED ROADS IN THE OSHIKOTO, OHANGWENA, OSHANA AND OMUSATI REGIONS

4.3 PAVED ROADS

4.3.1 COST AND QUALITY OPTIMISED MODELS FOR PAVED ROADS

4.3.2 DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL PAVED ROAD MAINTENANCE

4.4 MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES FOR LABOUR-BASED BUILT ROADS

TABLE 24 LOWER COST ACTIVITIES: LABOUR AGAINST EQUIPMENT
FIGURE 1: ROUTINE MAINTENANCE FOR LABOUR-BASED BUILT ROADS
TABLE 25: FREQUENCY AND DURATION OF EQUPMENT ACTIVITIES
FIGURE 2: TYPICAL TYRE DRAG CIRCUITS
TABLE 26: OPERATIONAL MAINTENANCE COSTS: RURAL ROADS: ZIMBABWE (US $/km/year)

4.5 UPGRADING OF EXISTING ROADS

4.5.1 INTRODUCTION

4.5.2 INPUT DATES

TABLE 27: FOUR UPGRADING METHODS FOR THE STUDY AREA
TABLE 28: APPROXIMATE ROAD OWNER COSTS IN THE STUDY AREA

4.5.3 UPGRADING FROM EARTH TO GRAVEL ROAD

4.5.4 UPGRADING FROM GRAVEL TO PAVED ROAD

TABLE 29: UPGRADING FROM GRAVEL TO PAVED ROAD: ECONOMIC INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (%)

TABLE 30: UPGRADING FROM GRAVEL TO PAVED ROAD: NET PRESENT VALUE

5.0 FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY IN THE STUDY AREA

5.1 UNPAVED ROADS

5.1.1 OSHIKOTO REGION

TABLE 31: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OSHIKOTO REGION

5.1.2 OSHANA REGION

TABLE 32: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OSHANA REGION

5.1.3 OHANGWENA REGION

TABLE 33: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OHANGWENA REGION

5.1.4 OMUSATI REGION

TABLE 34: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OMUSATI REGION

5.2 PAVED ROADS

5.2.1 OSHIKOTO REGION

TABLE 35: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OSHIKOTO REGION

5.2.2 OSHANA REGION

TABLE 36: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OSHANA REGION

5.2.3 OHANGWENA REGION

TABLE 37: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OHANGWENA REGION

5.2.4 OMUSATI REGION

TABLE 38: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OMUSATI REGION

5.3 CONSULTATIONS WITH REGIONAL COUNCILS, GOVERNORS AND OTHER COMMUNITY LEADERS

5.3.1 OSHIKOTO REGION: Problems and Requests

5.3.2 OSHANA REGION: Problems and Requests

5.3.3 OHANGWENA REGION: Problems and Requests

5.3.4 OMUSATI REGION: Problems and Requests

5.4 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE ROADS ASSESSMENT

6.0 A ROAD MAINTENANCE STRATEGY FOR THE STUDY AREA

6.1 UNPAVED ROADS: ROUTINE MAINTENANCE

6.1.1 OSHIKOTO REGION

TABLE 39: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: UNPAVED ROADS: OSHIKOTO REGION

6.1.2 OSHANA REGION

TABLE 40: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: UNPAVED ROADS: OSHANA REGION

6.1.3 OHANGWENA REGION

TABLE 41: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: UNPAVED ROADS: OHANGWENA REGION

6.1.4 OMUSATI REGION

TABLE 42: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: UNPAVED ROADS: OMUSATI REGION

6.2 PAVED ROADS

6.2.1 OSHIKOTO REGION

TABLE 43: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: PAVED ROADS: OSHIKOTO REGION

6.2.2 OSHANA REGION

TABLE 44: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: PAVED ROADS: OSHANA REGION

6.2.3 OHANGWENA REGION

TABLE 45: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: PAVED ROADS: OHANGWENA REGION

6.2.4 OMUSATI REGION

TABLE 46: SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS: PAVED ROADS: OMUSATI REGION

ANNEXURES: TRAFFIC COUNTS: EXCEL TABLES

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