It is proposed that the existing gravel road section between Aus and Goageb on trunk road 4/2, Lüderitz to Goageb, should be upgraded to surfaced standard.


This section is the only unpaved section on the route B 4 from Keetmanshoop to Lüderitz. It contains some dangerous spots mainly consisting of sharp horizontal curves normally at ends of long straights. The terrain is generally flat to rolling except for a few limited sections. There are also drainage problems along the section.

Traffic was recorded at about AADT (Annual Average Daily Traffic) 60 vehicles at a point 29 km west of Goageb in 1988, thereof 13% heavy vehicles (average for Namibia: 15% heavy vehicles). It is estimated that the number of vehicles increases up to 120 per day during the holiday seasons.

DOT has completed route selection for the entire section and detailed design nears completion. The new road follows partly the existing road (43 km) and partly a new alignment (56 km). The road is divided into two sections:

- Section 1: Goageb - Weltevrede, 58 km

- Section 2: Weltevrede - Aus, 41 km.

In September 1989, detailed design was complete for Section 1, except for four major drainage structures and tender documents. For Section 2, the topographical survey was complete, while the materials investigations were still outstanding. Completion of design works, including tender documents were estimated to require another 3 months, although it is felt by the Ministry that the road alignment near Goageb has to be re-investigated in order to optimise the alignment.

The re-alignment of the road near Goageb has been concluded in the meantime (March 1991) as has the completion of detail design and tender documentation for the entire road (August 1991). Tenders for the construction of the new road were called during September 1991 and the project commenced during October 1991. Completion date is the end of 1994.

The new road will be designed to permit a speed of 120 km/h, i.e. the normal design criteria for trunk roads in flat terrain in Namibia. Only marginal cost reductions can be achieved by reducing the design speed over some sections of rolling terrain and is not considered worthwhile. The crossection of the road consists of a carriageway of 2 x 3,4 m and gravel shoulders of 2 x 1,5 m, thus a total formation width of 9,8 m. The crossection also corresponds to the normal standard for this class of road (surfaced trunk/main road) in Namibia. At Goageb, however, the shoulder width is increased to 2,4 m to allow for pedestrians along the road.


No feasibility study has been carried out for the project. On sole cost/quality optimised grounds it can be doubted whether current traffic levels would justify an upgrading of the section to surfaced standards in the near future. But on other than cost/quality optimisation arguments the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication accord the project high priority in order to ensure the best possible access to Lüderitz in the national interest. Firstly, Lüderitz is currently the only port under Namibian control, and it is therefore envisaged that Lüderitz will be expanded to offer an alternative out/inlet to Walvis Bay, at least to some extent. Secondly, the development of Lüderitz can be expected to be promoted for regional reasons and to revive the port and the town as a centre of activities for the southern parts of Namibia. Finally, it can be assumed that during the 1990s the developments in Namibia will tend to shift traffic from rail to roads and sea routes. There is, hence, a potential for an increase in traffic to and from the port during the first ten years or so after independence.

The estimated costs are:

                                                        US $ million

(i) Construction Section  1                                  12,6
(ii) Construction Section 2                                   7,0
(iii) Consulting Services and Supervision                     1,1
                                                        Total: 20,7


 The envisaged construction periods by civil engineering contractors are 24-27 months for Section 1 and 16 months for Section 2. The project was recommended for implementation during the financial year 1991/92 (Priority 2): Implementation is required during the second phase, i.e. one year after the 21 March 1990).



The project would provide the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication: Department of Transport (DOT) with two experts in maritime affairs over a period of 3 to 5 years (i) in order to ensure that independent Namibia will be able to perform essential functions related to international co-operation, the regulation of shipping, maritime safety and pollution prevention, and maritime navigation and telecommunications, and (ii) to assist with the establishment of a self-sustained directorate within the DOT capable of performing the basic duties to be performed by a government in the field of maritime affairs.


Up until independence almost every aspect related to maritime affairs of relevance to Namibia was being administered by the South African Department of Transport. All laws are South African, and only minor arguments have so far required the involvement of the Namibian DOT. TransNamib Limited (TNL), a 100 % government owned corporation responsible for the operations of the Namibian railways, the TNL road transport services and the national airline, Namib Air, operate seven lighthouses along the coast, as well as the pilotage in the Port of Lüderitz. This port, which is the only port over which Namibia has presently full control, is also operated by TNL. The present maritime traffic in Lüderitz is insignificant, about 15.000 t per year. The number of boats which can be viewed as Namibian is very limited and includes only fishing vessels or vessels of a similar size.

The lighthouse at Walvis Bay is operated by the South African Transport Services, the port operator. Maritime radio telecommunications are provided from Walvis Bay, and are operated by the South African Department of Posts and Telecommunications, while a repeater station in Lüderitz is maintained by the Namibian Department of Posts and Telecommunications (DOPAT). Two vessels are employed by the Directorate of Sea Fisheries in the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Water and Rural Development for fishery protection services. No pollution control and rescue services are provided on the coast.

It will be immediately required to establish a directorate within the Department of Transport to be concerned with the maritime affairs sector, in view of the fact that the Namibian coastline is more than 1.350 km long and its waters are deemed to be one of the richest fishing grounds in the world. Competence in maritime affairs is also imperative in view of the South African claim to the Walvis Bay Enclave, the only developed deep-water port on the Namibian Coast, as well as to 14 small off-shore islands - the Penguin Islands - strung along the coast from south of Walvis Bay to the mouth of the Orange River. Walvis Bay and the off-shore islands are currently under South African administration, and South Africa furthermore claims 200 (nautical) mile fishing zones in the waters extending from Walvis Bay and the 14 off-shore islands, all in all constituting about 14 % of the Namibian off-shore waters within the 200 mile limit.

The establishment of competence in maritime affairs is envisaged to be done in several steps. The first step in the establishment of competence and capacity in the sphere of maritime affairs is proposed to compromise the following elements (proposals for the subsequent development will have to be developed later by the concerned staff):

- The enactment of comprehensive Namibian maritime affairs laws. Laws are currently being drafted by the DOT of the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication and it is envisaged that these laws will be promulgated by the National Assembly in due course in order to allow them to be made effective by the Government of the Republic of Namibia;

- The establishment of a separate unit - a Directorate in the Department of Transport - with a director reporting to the Under-Secretary of Transport. The unit will have two divisions for (i) Maritime Safety and Pollution Prevention, and (ii) International Relations and Maritime Law;

- TransNamib Limited will continue to be responsible for navigational aids, the Department of Post and Telecommunications will continue to be responsible for maritime telecommunications and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Water Affairs, and Rural Development will continue to be responsible for fishery protection services. General administrative services (personnel, finance, accounting, etc.) are provided by the Department of Transport of the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication;

- The new directorate will aim at establishing the basic competence and facilities required to perform the functions listed below, if possible within one year after commissioning:

* sea worthiness certification and registration of vessels
* personnel licensing and registration
* pollution prevention and control
* search and rescue services
* accident investigation
* international liaison and co-operation
* maritime law administration;

- It is assumed that the South African Department of Transport will agree to provide additional assistance as required during the first year. It is also assumed that the directorate will be able to hire services whenever they are available from the private sector, e.g. from classification societies;

- The recruitment of one or two maritime affairs experts from abroad with technical assistance from a donor to initially serve as Director of Maritime Affairs and Chief of the International Relations and Maritime Law Division. It is assumed that it will be possible to recruit a Namibian to serve as the Chief of the Maritime Safety and Pollution Prevention Division;

- The recruitment of staff to fill about 5 to 7 other professional posts established in the new approved organisational structure of the Directorate: Maritime Affairs within the Department of Transport;

- The development of on-the-job training and formal training programmes to ensure that the recruited staff and staff designated to take over as director and chiefs acquire the basic competence required within a specified time period.


To make the new directorate functional, it is proposed that a donor finances a technical assistance team comprising two experts. In addition, it is proposed that some funds be made available to these experts by the donor to make it possible to recruit consultants for short assignments, as required and to organise training abroad. The background and tasks of the two experts are proposed to be:

(i) A Director of Maritime Affairs. He is proposed to have a background as an executive in maritime affairs administration, and specifically in maritime safety aspects. He would preferably be a master mariner. He would be recruited on a priority basis as he would be involved in the recruitment of the other expert, and as far as possible in the recruitment of the other maritime affairs staff. He would be charged with making the new directorate functional according to the above targets and to train the Namibian director designate, envisaged to hold the position as Deputy Director as well as Chief of the Maritime Safety and Pollution Prevention Division, so that he can take over in 3 to 5 years time. In addition he would be responsible for the manpower development of the directorate, policy formulation (including the definition of the future evolution of the directorate), budgets and co-ordination with other directorates and ministries. He would also be responsible in providing advise to the Maritime Safety and Pollution Prevention Division and be involved in the establishment of a registry for Namibian ships and personnel, and the development of systems and procedures for certification of ships and personnel and accident investigation.

(ii) The Chief of the International Relations and Maritime Law Division. This person would have a background in a senior position in a corresponding unit of a maritime affairs administration or ministry of another country. He would have extensive experience in maritime laws and the international conventions underlying maritime affairs legislation. He would preferably also have experience in the planning of the maritime sector and the formulation of maritime policies. He would train the person designated as the future chief, to be able to take over after a period of about 3 years.

Both experts are assumed to be available in an advisory capacity for some time after they have stepped back from their line position within the Ministry.


The technical assistance is estimated to cost US $ 1,5 million. It has priority 1 (Priority 1: The Project should be immediately implemented).

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